# Mathematics

At Kegonsa Elementary, math instruction follows a developmental sequence using Math Expressions curriculum which is driven by the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. All students at Kegonsa will receive grade level rigor and instruction to meet their personal math needs. Teachers in grades K-5 follow math progressions for learning to ensure coherence throughout students math experiences.

**Kindergarten** students attending Kegonsa Elementary learn foundational skills in early numeracy. Math Expressions follows a research based series of learning progressions that supports the development of these early learning stages. Some of these early skills include:

- Knowing number names and counting in sequence to 100
- Writing numbers 0-20
- Counting to tell the number of objects
- Comparing numbers
- Understanding addition, (putting together) and subtraction, (taking apart)

**First Grade** students continue to develop strategies to solve increasingly complex problems, make connections between counting and addition and subtraction. Some of these skills include:

- Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction
- Understand and apply properties of operations
- Count and write to 120
- Add and subtract within 20
- Use place value understanding to add and subtract
- Measure length and time

**Second Graders** use learned strategies to extend their understanding of the base 10 system and develop fluency working with with addition and subtraction. They also begin working units of measure involving rulers and other tools and describing and analyzing shapes. Some of these skills include:

- Representing and solving problems of addition and subtraction
- Work with equal groups to gain foundational skills for multiplication
- Understand place value
- Measure and estimate lengths using standard units
- Work with time and money
- Represent and interpret data

**Third Graders** begin to develop new understandings of the meanings of multiplication and division, unit fractions and arrays. Students describe and analyze 2- dimensional shapes and extend understandings of arrays and area. Some of these skills include:

- Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division within 100
- Understand properties of multiplication and relationship between multiplication and division
- Identify and explain patterns in arithmetic
- Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic
- Solve problems involving time, liquid volumes, and mass of objects
- Represent and interpret data

**Fourth Graders** build on fluency and previously learned math skills using multiplication and division with multi-digit numbers. They build their understandings of adding, subtracting and multiplying fractions. Students extend their understandings of geometric figures and classifications. Some of these skills include:

- Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems
- Gain familiarity with factors and multiples
- Generalize place value understandings for multi-digit arithmetic
- Apply and extend understandings of fractions and equivalence
- Understand decimal notation for fractions and compare decimal fractions
- Convert measurements from larger units to smaller units
- Understand concepts of angle and measuring angles

**Fifth Graders** build on previous knowledge to develop fluency in working with the four operations and extend them to work with fractions and decimals to the hundreths. Students interpret numerical expressions, analyze patterns and relationships and develop an understanding of volume. Some of these skills include:

- Write and analyze numerical expressions with greater complexity
- Apply their understanding of the place value system to perform operations with whole numbers and decimals
- Apply and extend understandings of multiplication and division to fractions
- Convert measurements of a given system
- Represent and interpret data
- Relate volume to multiplication and division
- Graph points on coordinate plane to solve real world problems